Redbert (Beijing) Biotechnology Co., Ltd

Tumor Immunotherapy: A New Chapter in Cancer Treatment

Release time:2024-06-21 14:19      Views:200

Cancer, as one of the major diseases threatening human health, its treatment has always been a hot and difficult research topic in the medical community. Traditional cancer treatment methods include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Although these methods have achieved significant results in cancer treatment, there are still many limitations and side effects. In recent years, with the rapid development of immunology, tumor immunotherapy as an emerging treatment method is gradually showing its unique advantages and potential. This article aims to explore the principles, classifications, clinical applications, and future development trends of tumor immunotherapy.

1、The principles of tumor immunotherapy

Tumor immunotherapy is a treatment method that applies immunological principles and methods to activate immune cells in the body, enhance the body's anti-tumor immune response, especially to remove small residual tumor lesions, inhibit tumor growth, and break immune tolerance. The basic principle is that under normal circumstances, the immune system can recognize and eliminate tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, in order to survive and grow, tumor cells can adopt different strategies to suppress the human immune system and prevent it from killing tumor cells normally, thus surviving in various stages of the anti-tumor immune response. Tumor immunotherapy aims to overcome the immune escape mechanism of tumors, reactivate immune cells, and eliminate cancer cells.

2、Classification of tumor immunotherapy

1. Non specific immune stimulation: Non specific immune stimulation mainly includes lymphokine activated killer cell (LAK) therapy and cytokine mediated killer cell (CIK) therapy. LAK therapy utilizes interleukin-2 (IL-2) to stimulate immune active cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and has a killing effect on tumors in vitro that is independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA). CIK cells are relatively easy to cultivate and expand because they originate from the peripheral blood of patients or healthy individuals. Currently, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted to treat various tumors.

2. Tumor antigen-specific immunotherapy: Tumor antigen-specific immunotherapy mainly includes monoclonal antibody immune checkpoint inhibitors, therapeutic antibodies, cancer vaccines, cell therapy, and small molecule inhibitors. Among them, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are currently the most researched and clinically developed immunotherapy. The binding of PD-1 and PD-L1 mediates the co inhibitory signal of T cell activation, inhibiting the killing function of T cells. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors can specifically bind to PD-L1 on tumor cells, inhibit its expression, and restore T cell recognition of tumor cells, achieving anti-cancer effects through the autoimmune system.

3、Clinical application of tumor immunotherapy

In recent years, tumor immunotherapy has achieved significant results in clinical applications. It exhibits strong anti-tumor activity in the treatment of various solid tumors such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, cancer, and cancer. Multiple tumor immunotherapy drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical use. For example, PD-1 inhibitors Pembrolizumab and Nivolumab have been approved by the FDA for use in advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

In addition, some new immunotherapy schemes are constantly emerging. For example, the "Evoximab Combined Chemotherapy" program developed by the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Center of Sun Yat sen University effectively prolongs the survival of targeted drug-resistant non-small cell lung cancer patients. This plan breaks the dilemma of cancer targeted drug resistant patients being unable to receive immunotherapy and provides new treatment options for cancer patients.

4、The Future Development Trends of Tumor Immunotherapy

1. Individualized treatment: With the help of gene sequencing and immunophenotype analysis techniques, future tumor immunotherapy will pay more attention to individualized treatment. This means that doctors will be able to develop personalized treatment plans for each patient's specific genotype and immune phenotype. For example, identifying specific target mutations in patients through genetic testing and selecting the most suitable targeted therapeutic drugs.

2. Combination therapy strategy: In the future, tumor immunotherapy will increasingly adopt a combination therapy strategy, combining immunotherapy with traditional treatment methods such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy to form a comprehensive treatment model. This combination therapy strategy can improve treatment effectiveness, reduce recurrence rate, and potentially reduce side effects through the synergistic effect of different treatment methods.

3. Development of new immune checkpoint inhibitors: With a deeper understanding of tumor immune escape mechanisms, scientists will continue to develop new immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as TIGIT, LAG-3, etc. These new inhibitors can target more immune escape pathways of tumor cells, providing more therapeutic options for tumor immunotherapy.

4. Regulation of immune microenvironment: Future research will delve deeper into the impact of tumor microenvironment on immune response and seek to improve the effectiveness of tumor immunotherapy by regulating the tumor microenvironment. For example, by altering cytokines, chemokines, and other factors in the tumor microenvironment, immune cell infiltration and activation can be promoted, thereby improving the efficacy of immunotherapy.

5. Application of artificial intelligence in immunotherapy: Artificial intelligence technology will play an increasingly important role in tumor immunotherapy. Through big data analysis and machine learning algorithms, scientists can mine key information in immunotherapy and provide scientific basis for clinical decision-making. For example, using artificial intelligence technology to mine and analyze a large amount of immunotherapy data, predict the treatment response and prognosis of patients, and thus develop more accurate treatment plans.

6. Integration of cell therapy and gene therapy: In the future, tumor immunotherapy will increasingly integrate cell therapy and gene therapy technologies. For example, the combination of CAR-T cell therapy and gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas9) will provide new therapeutic strategies for tumor immunotherapy. These technologies can more accurately modify and activate the patient's immune cells, enabling them to more effectively recognize and attack tumor cells.

Tumor immunotherapy, as an emerging treatment method, has shown great potential and advantages in cancer treatment. With the emergence of the Beacon Optofluidic System from Redbert (Beijing) Biotechnology Co., Ltd., you can save a lot of time and greatly reduce production costs. The Beacon Optofluidic System can intervene when the cell diversity and survival rate reach their optimal level after transfection, and it is easy to screen multiple cells and select cell lines with higher expression levels, greatly reducing subsequent production costs. We have reason to believe that in the near future, tumor immunotherapy will bring good news to more cancer patients.

* The above content is collected online for reference only. If the article on this website involves copyright or other issues, please contact us in a timely manner and we will handle it as soon as possible.